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Definitions Page 3

A to C Pathway
angular velocity
athletic position
back foot
back hip commitment
backside collapse
backside hitting
backside under you
balance, dynamic
balance, static
barred arm
barrel above hands
barrel up
bat angle
bat, flat
bat, horizontal
bat mass (weight)
bat path
bat selection
bat speed
bat, vertical
batters box
bisect the head
bottom hand
bottom hand pulls
bunt, drag
bunt, push
bunt, sacrifice
bunt, suicide squeeze
center of gravity
centering, fine
centering, soft
chicken wing
cocking the barrel
contact hitter
contact point
count, hitters
count, neutral
count, pitchers
delaying action
drag backfoot
dropping the barrel
elbow to belly button
elbow, high back
elbow, high front
elbow, lift back
elbows down
eye dominance
finish, high
five eyes on pitcher
form an “A”
form an "L"
front foot
front shoulder down & in
front side
front side collapse
front side, firm
front side, weight against
front side, weight over
grip, choked
grip in fingers
grip in palms
hand path
hand, bottom
hand dominance
hand, top
hand position
hand-eye coordination
hands away
hands, hide the
hands, high
hands, low
hands, barrel above
hands, dead
hands inside the ball
hands, noisy
hands, quiet
hands outside the ball
happy zone
hard inside, soft away
head position
head still
head flies out
head movement
hips under you
hips rotate
hit and run
hit the inside of ball
hitch position
hitter, dead stop
home plate
kinetic energy
knob to the ball
launch position
line drive
linear transfer method
load, bat
load, inward turn
load the knob
load, no
load, preloaded
load, reverse C
load, tiny circles
longitudinal axis
maintain angle
mash the bug
mechanical couple
muscle memory
off-speed pitch
number knuckles
on your heels
opposite field
palm-up, palm down
pivot on back foot
plate coverage
power base
premature extension
quiet eyes
release point
rotational method
short front arm
shoulder to shoulder
shoulder, high front
stance, close your
stance, closed
stance, open your
stance, opened
stance, parallel
stance, pigeon-toed
stance, square
stance, widen your
step in the bucket
stepping on ice
stride closed
stride, developing a
stride, direction
stride, length
stride, no-stride
stride, opened
stride, overstride
stride, toe closed
stride, toe open
swing, compact
swing length
swing, long
swing, short
swing, looping
swing, inside-out
swing, outside-in
swing, sweeping
swing, round
swing, uppercut
swing, wood chopper
take a strike
time, movement
time, reaction
time, response
top hand
top hand, hanging
top hand push
top hand release
top hand too early
top hand, too little
under the hands
up the middle
weight shift
weight transfer
weight forward
weight on front side
weight on heels
weight distribution
wrapping the barrel
wrist roller
wrists cocked
wrists flat
wrists, roll


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chicken wing: A term to describe a high, flexed front elbow through contact and follow-through that prevents a hitter extending the front arm. This can force a hitter to open his front shoulder too soon in order to get the bat head through, and/or cause the barrel to drop and lag behind.
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Click Red Dot for Drills to Correct a Chicken Wing

cocking: A term used to describe a rotational action of either the hands, bat, trunk, hips, or knees as it is used to gather potential energy to be applied during the swing. example: a stretched rubber band, due to its position, (stretched), has potential energy that will be transferred when it returns to its original state.

cocking the barrel: A term used to describe the barrel moving slightly away from the contact point (toward the pitcher) at the top as the hitter loads.
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contact: A term used to describe the collision of the ball with the bat.
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contact hitter: A hitter who normally hits for a high average but has little power.

contact point: A position relative to home plate and body where contact is made. Example, contact point on a pitch inner third of the plate is just in front of the striding foot. Middle third is normally contacted just inside of the stride foot, and outside third is normally contacted between the front hip and belly button. The contact point should be relative to the body instead of home plate alone, because hitters take stances at different locations in the batter’s box. Some set up forward in the box, while others set up deep in the box. If the contact point is relative to the body, it doesn’t matter where a hitter takes his stance.
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count: A term that refers to the number of balls and strikes on a hitter. Example, a count of 1-2 is read 1 and 2, meaning the hitter has 1 ball and two strikes. The balls are always given first. When an umpire raises his hands and extends his fingers to indicate the count, the strikes are always on the first base side, or his right hand, balls on the left.

count, hitters: A term which refers to counts that favor the hitter, where pitchers are inclined to a strike for fear of falling further behind in the count or walking a hitter. Normally, hitters can expect fastball in these counts. Pitchers who can locate good change-ups many times can take advantage of hitters in this situation because they are normally expecting a fastball and can easily be fooled. The following are normally considered hitters counts: 1-0, 2-0, 3-0, 3-1. Also, if a pitcher has difficulty in throwing their breaking ball for a strike, 0-0 and 3-2 becomes hitter counts.

count, neutral: A count that doesn’t really favor the hitter or pitcher. Examples are 1-1, 2-2. Dependent on the pitchers ability to throw his breaking pitch for strikes, 0-0 and 3-2 can become a neutral count.

count, pitchers: A count in which the pitcher has a distinct advantage over the hitter by being ahead in the count. Pitchers counts include 0-2, 1-2.

delaying action: A term used to describe the separation of the striding foot landing, while the hands and weight remain back. Hitters use different techniques with the hands and bat to produce this delaying action causing a separation of striding foot landing, and hitting action beginning.

drag backfoot: A description of the back foot action as the weight begins to transfer against the front side. The inner portion of the ball of the foot actually rolls forward, moving along the ground. This is normally seen in linear transfer type hitters as opposed to rotational type who pivot on the back foot.
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Click Red Dot for Drills to Develop a Back Foot Pivot

dropping the barrel: A phrase used to describe the barrel dropping below the hands. This normally occurs during an uppercut type swing.
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Click Red Dot for Drills to correct Dropping the Barrel

elbow to belly button: A reference point from the side view of a hitter where the front elbow moves to a position adjacent to the belly button as a hitter loads.
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elbow, high back: A phrase used to describe the position of the back elbow, normally approaching a 90-degree angle to the body (plus or minus). Many young hitters are given this advice by adults who believe that by raising the back elbow a hitter will not drop the barrel, avoiding an uppercut. This is not sound mechanical advice. As the swing begins, the back elbow must drop near the back hip. This shortens this radius about the longitudinal axis of the body, developing angular velocity. (see short swing). By advising a hitter to lift the back elbow, it drops further, and more forcefully. The analog of Newton’s Third of Law of Motion that deals with rotary motion, indicates for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction in direction and magnitude. What does this mean? The higher the back elbow starts, the more forcefully it drops, resulting in the front shoulder lifting higher. That’s right, the front shoulder. Just what their coaches were attempting to avoid. It is highly advisable for the average hitter to let his elbows just relax, both approximately the same height from the ground. A hitter should place emphasis on keeping the front shoulder down and in, and driving the knob down. This will keep the barrel above the hands, virtually eliminating an uppercut.
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elbow, high front: A phrase used to describe the position of the fron elbow, normally approaching a 90 degree angle to the body. This is normally seen in conjunction witha horizontal or flat bat and a high front shoulder. In this position, the first action of the hands is to move away from the body as the front elbow extends, resulting in the hands casting.
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Click Red Dot for Drills to Correct a High Front Elbow

elbow, lift back: See elbow high back.

elbows down: The position of the elbows while taking a stance. Many describe this position as the forearms forming an “A” or and upside down “V”. Starting with the elbows in a relaxed, down position makes it easier to keep the front shoulder closed and begin the swing with the knob going down toward the inside of the ball, keeping the barrel up.
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Click Red Dot for Drills to Develop Keeping the Elbows Down

extension: A term used to describe the lengthening action of the front arm and bat about the longitudinal axis of the body through contact. Keeping the hands close to the body as they begin to move forward reduces the radius about the longitudinal axis of the body. As this radius shortens, the angular velocity increases, much like that of a figure skater as she begins a spin. With her arms extended, she spins at a given velocity. As she crosses her arms in front of her chest (reducing her radius about her longitudinal axis) she immediately increases her angular velocity, (spins faster). This same principle, long-short-long, applies to hitting. As a hitter’s hands approach the ball, from an inside path, the angular velocity of the bat increases. As the hands approach contact, the front arm begins to extend, lengthening the radius about the longitudinal axis. Alone, this would slow rotation and decrease bat speed. However, at this time the hands begin to function as a mechanical couple. Defined, a mechanical couple consists of two opposing parallel forces causing rotation about a fixed axis . Simply put, the bottom hand pulls, and the top hand pushes. This principle when used on the end of a third class lever such as a bat, results in tremendous bat speed being developed. The strength of the hands wrists and forearms are important in attempting to maintain the velocity of the bat head as it lengthens through contact. The summation of forces, from the ground up through a system of levers, combined with linear and rotary movements through the trunk, chest, arms, wrists, hands, generate bat speed, which applies a force to the ball.
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